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La visite du bar secret "Cabinet". TÉMOIGNAGES Créer un voyage fascinant à Saint-Pétersbourg au cours duquel vous ne connaîtrez aucunes difficultés organisationnelles c'est mon but principal cependant les commentaires de mes touristes sont très importants pour moi car ils me font comprendre que j'accomplis bien mon but. À mon arrivée à Saint Petersbourg j'étais un peu perdu je dois l'avouer.

Mais ma rencontre avec Aida m'a tout de suite mit à l'aise. Sa grande connaissance de la ville, de ses momuments ainsi que ses petits secrets ma permit de découvrir la capitale du Nord et de sentir jusqu'à son âme. Je n'oublie pas son savoir immense de l'histoire de la ville, avec pleins d'anecdotes sur les personnages qu'à connue la Saint Pétersbourg depuis son édification. On a fait plusieurs musées dont l'Hermitage, le musée Russe et pleins d'autres encore.

Aida était toujours présente pour donner des explications et des indications même sur les oeuvres les plus insignifiantes. Le tour en bateau et la visite sur les toits de la ville pour voir le couché du soleil étaient l'un des moments forts de mon séjour un Saint-Pétersbourg. Merci Aida pour toutes ces découvertes!! Jean-François Anton Arras. Aida est une guide formidable très gentille très agréable et très ponctuelle. Très organisée aussi et avec son professionnalisme elle nous a fait découvrir les trésors de ST Pétersbourg et la vie de son pays que nous ne connaissions pas.

Nous avons été ravis de faire sa connaissance. Nous envisageons de faire un autre séjour à St Pétersbourg en demandant à Aida de bien vouloir faire notre guide.

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En deux mots découvrir la Russie avec elle c est génial. Aida, Paul a fait une erreur de manipulation sur son portable pour les photos elles sont toutes disparues. Paul et Eliane Bousquiet Paris. Aida est une personne très professionnelle, patiente, à l'écoute et très investie dans ce qu'elle s'engage; je la recommande vivement.

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Malheureusement nous n'avons pas eu la chance de visiter Saint Pétersbourg avec elle car elle est tombée malade avant que nous arrivions mais malgré cela, elle est allée au bout de l'organisation de notre de visites, prises de rdv, achats des tickets pour les palais et spectacles, elles s'est occupé du transport vers les sites, elle s'est également mise en relation avec notre hôtel.

Et pour conclure, vu qu'elle ne pouvait pas faire les visites elle-même, elle nous a laissé entre les mains d'une autre guide tout aussi compétente qu'elle connaissait. Laurent Babonnaud Lyon. Nous lui avons laisse carte blanche pour nous faire découvrir la ville. Elle nous a emmené au Musee de l'Ermitage, voir le palais Pouchkine, le Metro , les merveilleuses églises, un Marché fabuleux, le tout accompagné d'histoires et d'anecdotes, et tout cela dans un français parfait.

Bref Aida à été d'une grande aide, elle s'est vraiement pliée en quatre pour nous. A recommander sans moderation!! Ceffrey Anne Honfleur. Le hasard d'Internet, nous a permis de prendre contact avec Aïda pour un voyage familial de 4 jours pour fêter la nouvelle année Très rapidement, j'ai compris son professionnalisme, sa connaissance de la ville et sa disponibilité. Occupée les 2 premiers jours de notre voyage, elle a trouvé une guide très sympathique et compétente parlant comme elle un français parfait. Sa connaissance de la ville et de son histoire, nous ont permis de visiter St Pétersbourg avec une tranquillité d'esprit nous permettant de nous consacrer à l'essentiel et de profiter de la beauté incomparable de cette ville.

Sa connaissance de la France et notre culture nous a aussi permis d'échanger sur nos différents mode de vie et de parler librement du pays, de sa politique, de sa jeunesse.

En quelques jours et compte tenu de la période chargée elle a su nous construire un programme adapté à notre rythme et à nos attentes. Aleksei, however, altered the traditional duma recruitment policy in the s and began to promote undistinguished "new men" into the duma. Despite the claims of some historians, the new men were not radicals. It is true that many of them had made their way to the top by virtue of their service and skill, and not due to any hereditary right to elite ranks or offices.

They were the beneficiaries of a very mild drift toward meritocratic appointment. But the new men did not necessarily share the principles standing behind the policy that brought them into the heights of Muscovite society. They had been born and bred in a society that took for granted the existence of a class of men who were the natural born leaders of the realm.

The new men recognized that though they were among the elite, they were not of it in a genealogical sense. It likely never occurred to them to alter the basic principles of the old status system. The parvenus wanted to become members of the hereditary elite, not to destroy it.

Nastassja Tanner

Evidence of widespread genealogical falsification by the new men is prima facie indication of this desire and the mentality that stood behind it. Prior to the reign of Aleksei Mikhailovich, the boyar duma had been the preserve of a small set of pedigreed families, each of whom held the right to place its senior members on the high council.

However Aleksei altered the traditional duma recruitment policy in the s and began to promote undistinguished "new men" into the council. Historians have traditionally interpreted the rise of the new men in a political light, seeing them as a counterweight to a recalcitrant aristocracy that stood in the way of evolving absolutism.

Yet, as has recently been pointed out, the evidence for this understanding of the attitudes of the new men is entirely circumstantial. The record contains no indication that the parvenus conceived of themselves as a group or resisted aristocratic privilege.

Visite guidée de Saint-Pétersbourg en français

An appointment to the duma was in a sense a mixed blessing for a parvenu. Certainly it was a high honor, but it was an honor that had to be justified within the context of a society that deeply believed in the sanctity of hereditary privilege. And here the parvenus were found wanting. The new men, unlike their aristocratic counterparts, could not legitimize their seats in the council by pointing to long lists of ancestors with distinguished service records.

This lack of pedigree caused anxiety among the new men, an anxiety that was heightened by the court's decision in to abolish mestnichestvo and call for the submission of new genealogical records from all the court families. But, given their humble backgrounds, they had to look with some suspicion on a new government-sponsored inquiry into. They were men of the duma, but not duma men, and this would certainly be found out by the court, to what effect no one knew. For many of the new men, the solution to this paradox was clear, and in it we find positive evidence that the parvenus did not want to fight aristocracy, but to become aristocrats: As we will see, the Koltovskiis and those like them practiced three types of deception, each of which was carefully calculated to raise and protect their status at court.

First, they artificially linked their genealogies to those of more distinguished clans, thereby gaining valuable ancient ancestors.


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Second, they falsified documents to make it seem that their predecessors had served in higher offices than they actually had. Finally, and more unusually, they recast well- known historical scenes to make them metaphorically relevant to their concerns. In these ways, anxious servitors manipulated historical materials to fashion for themselves a usable imaginary past.

The rise of the Koltovskiis. In the Muscovite court, a man was defined first and foremost by the dignity of his clan, the status of which was measured by its antiquity and the quality of its service to the grand prince. The ancient clans that dominated the duma in the second half of the seventeenth century were distinguished by centuries of honorable sacrifice, all of which was recorded in the official Genealogical books rodoslovnye knigi and Court service registers razriadnye knigi. The patriarch of the family was probably a man named Mikhail Ivanovich who may have served V.

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Shemiachich and, later, Grand Prince Ivan Ivanovich of Riazan' in the first quarter of the sixteenth century. Fedor Mikhailovich is reported to have served as a voevoda in a campaign against the Tatars in ;9 and Grigorii aka Istoma10 Mikhailovich is found serving in Riazan' in Though it appears Anna's distant cousin Daniil Grigor'evich may have been made okol'nichii in , the Koltovskiis proved unable to capitalize on the marriage and place additional members in the duma. Though Anna's wedding did not bring the clan high honors, it did transform the Koltovskiis from provincial gentry into courtiers, albeit humble ones in constant military and civil service.

Their new status is reflected in the fact that after the. In the first quarter of the seventeenth century approximately sixteen Koltovskiis entered service at court, twelve of whom held a Moscow rank, usually dvorianin Moskovskii or stol'nik. In the remainder of the century, twenty-one Koltovskiis are recorded as entering service, all of whom held Moscow rank, most frequently striapchii or stol 'nik. These figures clearly suggest that though the Koltovskiis succeeded in ensconcing themselves within the Moscow ranks, they were held at arms length by the court, perhaps due to the fact that they were neither titled nor one of the old Muscovite service families.

The Koltovskiis remake themselves. The court itself provided the Koltovskiis and other Moscow service families with the opportunity to do something about their genealogical deficiency: The clans began immediately to search their private archives for the genealogical information and the substantive documentation necessary to compose an official genealogical rescript rodoslovnaia rospis".

By all rights the Koltovskiis belonged in the second level of the proposed multi- tiered genealogical register: Yet an investigation of the rescripts they submitted to the Chamber of Genealogical Affairs suggests that they had their sights set higher. Dmitri Afanas'evich Koltovskii submitted two sets of documents: The Sorokoumov-Glebovs were a pedigreed clan that had fallen on hard times. Indeed they managed to have their names included in the first official genealogical registers compiled in the s, an act that established their hold among the elite clans.

In fact, the Sorokoumov-Glebovs were very poorly represented in court activities. Only three Sorokoumov-Glebovs are recorded in court registers of the sixteenth century. According to the Koltovskii rescripts and the Velvet book, the progenitor of the Koltovskii clan was, as we have seen, one Mikhail Ivanovich, "who served Shemiachich in Starodub on a prebendal estate, and thereafter served the grand prince of Riazan' and began to be called Koltovskii. This, however, was a fiction invented by senior members of the Koltovskii clan with the complicity of the Glebovs.

Our earliest possible reference to him comes from the Sorokoumov-Glebov entry in the Chronicle redaction of the Genealogical book of the s, where he is not identified as the founder of the Koltovskiis and is referred to only as Mikhail Ivanovich. Two are mentioned in the official record, as we have seen: Fedor, who was a voevoda in , and Grigorii aka Istoma , who was a voevoda in It is possible to reconstruct how and why the Koltovskiis came to recognize the Sorokoumov-Glebovs as their ancestors. Opportunity was provided by the old Genealogical books, where many men were identified only by their first names and patronymics and their progeny if any were not recorded.

The court service records provided a suggestive link. The Koltovskiis knew that some of their actual ancestors, such as Fedor and Grigorii, had served the court in the early sixteenth century and that their father was named Mikhail. Armed with this rather tenuous connection, the Koltovskiis may have approached the Sorokoumov-Glebovs in the early s and suggested that their "Mikhail Ivanovich" was the father of "Fedor Mikhailovich Koltovskii," hence "Mikhail Ivanovich Koltovskii," son of Ivan Andreevich Durnoi. The Koltovskiis had ample motive to connect themselves to the Sorokoumov-Glebovs.